Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.




(click the title link above to download the full .pdf)

Bradstreet JJ, Smith S, Baral M, Rossignol DA.

Altern Med Rev. 2010 Mar;15(1):15-32.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity 
disorder (ADHD) are common and complex neurodevelopmental conditions. 
Diagnostic criteria for these conditions have traditionally relied 
solely on behavioral criteria without consideration for potential 
biomedical underpinnings. Newer evidence, however, reveals that ASDs are 
associated with: oxidative stress; decreased methylation capacity; 
limited production of glutathione; mitochondrial dysfunction; intestinal 
dysbiosis; increased toxic metal burden; immune dysregulation, 
characterized by a unique inflammatory bowel disease and immune 
activation of neuroglial cells; and ongoing brain hypoperfusion. Many of 
these same problems are common features in children with ADHD. These 
medical conditions, whether co-morbidities or etiopathogenic, would be 
expected to have synergistically negative effects on the development, 
cognition, focus, and attention of affected children. It is likely these 
biological abnormalities contribute significantly to the behavioral 
symptoms intrinsic in these diagnoses. However, treatment for these 
underlying medical disorders is clinically justified, even if no clear 
immediate behavioral improvements are observed. This article reviews the 
medical literature and discusses the authors clinical experience using 
various biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress, methylation capacity 
and transsulfuration, immune function, gastrointestinal problems, and 
toxic metal burden. These biomarkers provide useful guides for 
selection, efficacy, and sufficiency of biomedical interventions. The 
use of these biomarkers is of great importance in young children with 
ADHD or individuals of any age with ASD, because typically they cannot 
adequately communicate regarding their symptoms.

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